Hemostasis is the process that forms a barrier to blood loss at the site of blood vessel injury and limits it to that site. Primary hemostasis is the first phase; a plug is formed by the platelets at the site of vessel injury. Secondary hemostasis follows where the plug is strengthened by the addition of fibrin.
Fibrin is produced through a series of complex biochemical reactions when soluble plasma proteins, known as coagulation factors, associate with the platelet plug and the injured vessel.
von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. Acquired disorders of platelet function may result from the effect of certain drugs on normal platelet function.
D-dimer is a specific marker of fibrinolysis and is present in the circulation as part of the normal wound healing process, however it is a great diagnostic marker for thrombotic conditions. One of the most common and potentially lethal of these conditions is venous thromboembolism: deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE).
Immunoassays have been developed to determine hemostatic status by measuring the concentration of peptides, proteins, and coagulation factors found in the patient’s sample.