Gastroenteritis is caused by many different infectious microbes, or their toxins, and is one of the major causes of death in infants and young children in the developing world. Chronic gastroenteritis is caused by viruses, bacteria, and protozoa, with elderly and immunocompromised adults often severely affected. Exposure and transmission of these diseases has been increasing worldwide as the result of foreign travel.
AbD Serotec offers a wide range of antibodies to important intestinal pathogens such as Rotaviruses, Astroviruses, Adenoviruses, Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella, plus a large number of other pathogenic species which can cause gastroenteritis. All these antibodies are available in bulk quantities and may be tailored to meet product performance specifications for use in in vitro diagnostic applications – contact us for further information.
Rotavirus enterotoxin is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. By the age of 5 almost every child will have been infected by rotavirus. Rotavirus gastroenteritis is highly contagious, mainly transmitted by the fecal - oral route, and is particularly prevalent during winter and spring in temperate climates. Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a leading cause of infantile death, especially in developing countries, due to severe diarrhoea and resulting dehydration. Subsequent infections are less severe or even asymptomatic, especially in adults, as immunity is developed towards the rotavirus.
Of the seven groups of rotavirus (A-G), humans are most commonly infected by group A. The use of monoclonal antibodies in rapid immunodiagnostic tests, such as enzyme linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA), allows for specific and sensitive rotaviral species and serotype identification from fecal samples. We offer several antibodies to rotavirus A including two matched antibody pairs suitable for ELISA.
Our full range of antibodies specific to rotavirus can be viewed here.
Enteric astroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis in young children, particularly those under 2 years of age. Infection is usually asymptomatic in adults, though immunocompromised and elderly adults are likely to be affected. Astroviral transmission is by ingestion of contaminated food and water, or by the fecal - oral route. In temperate regions there is seasonal variation in astroviral infection peaking in winter, whereas in tropical countries peak infections occur in the rainy season. Astroviruses are classified into mammalian and avian genera – there are eight human astrovirus species and seven human astrovirus serotypes which cause gastroenteritis, of which serotype 1 is particularly prevalent.
ELISA tests are used for the clinical detection and identification of astroviruses from fecal samples. These assays use antibodies specific to astroviral antigens such as viral capsid proteins and provide quick and sensitive results.
We offer several antibodies suitable for ELISA, including a monoclonal and polyclonal antibody for use in a matched pair.
Our full range of antibodies specific to astrovirus can be viewed here.
Although adenoviruses are mostly associated with respiratory diseases, they are also a common cause of infantile gastroenteritis. There are 6 human adenovirus species labeled A to F and over 50 different serotypes.
Gastroenteritis is caused by human adenovirus F, serotypes 40 and 41, and is transmitted through the fecal – oral route.
Diagnosis of adenovirus in cases of gastroenteritis can be quickly determined with immunodiagnostic kits using antibodies specific to adenovirus F, serotypes 40 and 41.
We offer a matched antibody pair to adenovirus suitable for ELISA and immunofluorescence, and a FITC labeled antibody with known reactivity to serotypes 40 and 41.
Cryptosporidium is a protozoal pathogen that causes cryptosporidiosis, one of the most common waterborne diseases worldwide. Cryptosporidiosis is transmitted through the ingestion of oocysts from contaminated food and water, or spread through the fecal - oral route. Cryptosporidiosis can become a severe and life-threatening disease particularly in children and immunocompromised people. Cryptosporidium parvum is the main species causing cryptosporidiosis in humans.
Quick and simple immunodiagnostic tests using monoclonal antibodies are ideal for sensitive and specific detection of C. parvum in fecal and water samples. We offer two clones recognizing C. parvum oocysts, which are suitable for ELISA and immunofluorescence.
Giardia is a major cause of childhood diarrhoea in developing countries, is commonly associated with foreign travel, and is a frequent cause of diarrhoeal outbreaks linked to drinking water contamination in developed countries.
Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the small intestine of humans and a variety of other mammalian hosts causing giardiasis, a type of gastroenteritis. Giardiasis occurs from ingesting infectious cysts through contaminated food and water, or is spread through the fecal - oral route. Giardia can be difficult to diagnose and many people are asymptomatic carriers of giardia, however, non-immunological testing does not always yield a positive result since the parasite is not consistently excreted. Rapid immunoassay kits developed using antibodies specific to Giardia lamblia antigens help to provide accurate diagnosis.
We offer three antibodies recognizing Giardia lamblia, which are suitable for ELISA, immunofluorescence and Western blotting.